5G | 第五代行動通訊技術

  • 第五代行動通訊技術是什麼?
    5G 是「第五代行動通訊技術」的縮寫,為下一代行動網路的名稱。

    1G網路帶給我們第一支手機,2G網路開始能發簡訊,3G網路啟用行動互聯網。目前正在使用的 4G,自 2009 年以來開始部署全球。4G LTE(長期演進的結果)是 4G 的最新版本,允許下載速率高達約 200Mbps。然而,4G 網路的功能已無法滿足現今使用者,他們希望的手機和其他設備能容納更多的數據和有更快的速度。因此,研發出具有更快速和傳輸量的新型網路是我們努力的方向。

    「5G」技術僅是一個對下一代行動網路的指標,如延遲、網路連接密度、和數據傳輸速率。一旦達到這些標準,5G 應該能夠處理比當今網路多 1000 倍的流量,並且比 4G LTE 快 10 倍。

    無線電頻譜頻段(介於30 – 300GHz之間)將開放使用,因5G網路技術由無線電頻率「毫米波」組成, 但毫米波容易被建築物阻擋,又容易被大氣中的氣體,植物和雨水吸收,毫米波對傳輸可達範圍有所限制, 需要安裝成千上萬個小型基地台(蜂巢式網路)進行傳輸。另外,為降低5G的延遲,多接取邊緣運算技術(MEC)也隨之興起。

  • 為何需要?
    提到 "5G",多數人所知的eMBB(增強型行動寬頻服務),它將實現在手機上閃電般快速上傳/下载的速度。

    5G的另外一項特性是 URLLC(超可靠低延遲通信) - 用於須低延遲及高可靠性的應用場景。例如:自動駕駛、VR、工廠自動化等領域,技術人員不再需要透過無線電雙面聯繫,能直接使用VR技術來清楚地看到和理解緊急情況。

    另一個重要的特性為mMTC(巨量多機器型態通訊) - 支援大量的終端IoT裝置連結,主要應用於智慧城市、工廠自動化、智慧家庭。

  • 技嘉的特色
    為了實現 5G 技術,營運商若是要將整個前端與後端網路設備進行升級,可能要價不斐。 例如:就僅有目前前端 RAN(無線電接入網)建設來說是不夠的,5G部署所需的基地台數量是現今的4倍,建設成本將比4G高出10~20倍。

    為提供上述提決方案,GIGABYTE 與 ITRI 合作開發 iMEC:智慧移動邊緣運算平台,可大幅減少移動來回的頻寬,並提供超低延遲邊緣雲端平台,結合 GIGABYTE 伺服器和+ 雲端虛擬化技術可以取代昂貴的軟硬體,降低後端成本,運營商能夠快速部署,並兼顧成本效益地實現下一代移動網路。

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